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INDUSTRIAL SERVICES

Main and supplementary bonding/ earthing to gas and water supplies

See what our customers had to say about our work on Bonding here, and here.

Main Bonding (Earthing)
Main Bonding is the use of a separate thick (10mm) green and yellow copper cable, to connect the Water, Gas and Oil services to the Earth Terminal in or adjacent to your consumer unit. Connections are made on the metal pipes near the point at which they enter your home, i.e. The Main Bonding for the water is normally connected within 600mm of your Water Stop Tap.Main Bonding is there to protect you. A fault current (amps), but if is easy to understand in volts think of it in that way instead, will always try to find a path down to earth, literally to the ground. The current will always take the easiest path to ground; the idea of Main Bonding (and Supplementary Bonding) is to create an alternative path for the current to flow that is an easier path than along one of your heating pipes, along your arm, through your body, down your legs to the wet kitchen floor and to ground. By using a thick copper cable, you are creating a path that is more inviting to any fault currents and will divert any fault currents from your body or places where it should not go, as the current flows down to ground.

As long as the Water pipe, Gas pipe or Oil pipe, coming into your property are metallic, Main Bonding is compulsory in all circumstances even when the rest of the pipes in your house are plastic.

Supplementary Bonding
Supplementary Bonding is the use of a slighter thinner (4mm) green and yellow copper cable to connect together all metal pipes (and possible circuits) in a particular area. This area is typically the bathroom, or any other room containing a bath or shower. The  17th Edition Regulations is a little less demanding than the 16th Edition when it comes to Supplementary Bonding. There may be cases when no supplementary bonding is required in the bathroom, i.e. all the pipes are plastic. There could be other circumstances also when no supplementary bonding is required but since the regulations and calculations involved would be impossible to translate into layman’s terms, only an electrician could really come to that judgement.

Other areas where you may find or need Supplementary Bonding.
Area around Central Heating Boiler, Combi Boiler, and Immersion Heaters, where all the metallic pipes should be connected together with a green and yellow cable.

Kitchen. supplementary Bonding is installed in the kitchen, i.e. connecting kitchen sink with the hot and cold water pipes, a lot less frequently these days due to the relaxation in the 17th Edition with regards to Supplementary Bonding. That said, it’s better to be safer than sorry, so if your electrician does recommend that bonding be done in your kitchen (especially in commercial and industrial settings), don’t automatically be suspicious.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Tripping RCD’s,circuit breakers, fuseboard replacement

Fuses
Rewirable fuses have a piece of special wire running between two screws designed specifically to melt and break When a fault or overload current flows through the circuit. The melted fuse breaks the circuit, disconnecting the faulty circuit and keeping you safe.
MCB’s – Mini Circuit Breakers

These are automatic protection devices in a household consumer unit that switch off a circuit if they detect a fault. They are similar in size to fuses, but give more precise protection. When they ‘trip’ you can simply reset the switch, but make sure you correct the fault first.An MCB is a form of fuse (protective device) which overcomes the traditional problem associated with fuses in so much as when one blows it does not need to be replaced as a fuse does. MCB’s operate when they sense an overload, or over current, and become an automatic switch, turning off, or tripping, the MCB when it detects such an overload.

RCD – Residual Current Devices
See what our customers had to say about our work with RCD’s here.

A residual current device (RCD) is an electrical safety device that turns off the electricity supply automatically if there is a fault in either your wiring or something you plug in and use. RCD’s are far more sensitive than normal fuses and circuit-breakers and so provide you with much needed extra protection against an electric shock.

Having an RCD can save your life. An RCD constantly monitors the electric current flowing around your system. If it detects electricity flowing down an unintended path, such as into a person who has touched something live, it will switch the circuit off very quickly as they usually operate within 25-30 milliseconds, thereby significantly reducing the risk of death or serious injury. Circuit breakers and wire fuses can take significantly longer to turn off the power, as they are primarily designed to protect the wiring, and this can prove fatal if a person was getting an electric shock. If your home has one or more RCD’s, then you must test them regularly.

Testing the button every three months is important. The device should switch off the electricity to a number of circuits; you should then switch it back on to restore the electricity. Do not hold the test button for a long period if the RCD does not trip. If it doesn’t switch off the electricity when you press the button, contact a registered electrician. To test, just follow the instruction label, which you should find near to the RCD. It should read as follows:

“This installation, or part of it, is protected by a device which automatically switches off the supply if an earth fault develops. Test every three months by pressing the button marked ‘T’ or ‘Test’.” More on RCD’s

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Electrical periodic tests

See what our customers had to say about our Periodic Inspection Reports here, here, here, and here.

What is a periodic inspection?
An inspection and series of tests to make sure your electrical installation will continue to conform to the national safety standard. A periodic inspection will

  • Reveal if any of your electrical circuits or equipment are overloaded.
  • Find any potential electric shock risks or fire hazards.
  • Identify any defective electrical work.
  • Highlight any lack of earthing or bonding.
Tests are also carried out on wiring and fixed electrical equipment to check that it is safe. A schedule of circuits will also be provided, which is invaluable for a property.

 
Why is a periodic inspection needed?
Electrics deteriorate with use and age – and electricity can be deadly. So it’s vital that people aren’t put at risk.

How often is a periodic inspection required?

Your electrics should be tested every:

  • 10 years for a home.
  • 5 years for a business.
  • 3 years for caravans.
  • 1 year for swimming pools.

 
Other instances when a periodic inspection should be carried out are

  • When a property is being prepared to be let.
  • Before selling a property or when buying a previously occupied property.

 

Who should do it and what happens?
A suitably qualified electrician, who will check the electrics against the national safety standard, should carry out all periodic inspections. The inspection should meet BS 7671 – Requirements for Electrical Installations (IEE Wiring Regulations). That’s the technical name for the 850 regulations that are checked in this test.

The inspection takes into account all the relevant circumstances and includes the following

  • The adequacy of earthing and bonding.
  • The suitability of the switch and control gear. For example an old fusebox with a wooden back, cast-iron switches, or a mixture of both will need replacing.
  • The serviceability of switches, sockets and light fittings. All of these may need replacing: older round-pin sockets, round light switches, cables with fabric coating hanging from ceiling roses to light fittings, black switches and sockets mounted in skirting boards.
  • The type of wiring system and its condition. For example cables coated in black rubber were phased out in the 1960s, likewise cables coated in lead or fabric are even older and may well need replacing (modern cables use safer pvc insulation).
  • That residual current devices are used for sockets that may be used with outdoor electrical equipment.
  • The presence of adequate identification and notices.
  • The extent of any wear and tear, damage or other deterioration.
  • The changes in use of the premises which have led to, or may lead to, problematic wiring.
The electrician will provide a Periodic Inspection Report (PIR) as part of the periodic inspection.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Emergency light reporting and testing

The purpose of regular testing of your emergency lighting systems is, firstly, to ensure you continue to comply with regulations but – more importantly – to you, the person charged with the responsibility, is to ensure that the emergency lighting provides two safeguards for a building and staff in the event of power failure:

First, safe and prompt access to emergency exits (egress), and second, to provide lighting of sufficient levels, and for a sufficiently long duration, to permit safe and orderly shutdown of processes that might become hazardous if simply abandoned.

Remember that failure to do so could result in prosecution in the event of an accident caused by non-compliance.

What do the regulations say?
Regulations on testing are covered by BS 5266, which details the requirements for emergency lighting.
Those requirements state that emergency lighting systems should be periodically tested and inspected to ensure that all luminaries operate correctly in power loss situations.

Who can test the emergency lighting system?
Well there are a number of checks that, if you wish, you can undertake yourself. Firstly it is recommended that the daily and monthly checks can be completed by the designated person with responsibility within the building.

Daily Check
The daily check involves completing a visual check of the emergency light indicators and the light fitting itself, i.e. are the little red LED lights on on the unit meaning power is getting to the emergency light and are the fittings suitable for their purpose and not damaged. Should either of these not be satisfactory they should be attended to immediately and be recorded in a site log

Monthly Check
The monthly check should be for visible signs of damage to fittings and a quick operational test that is to say the light be disconnected from the power source. If the device does not light, or the lamps are dim, or if it fails to light at full brilliance for 30 seconds, the unit should be serviced, repaired, or replaced with any issues once again being recorded in a site log.

Annual Check
The annual test requires that the power actually be interrupted to the emergency lighting unit, by unplugging it, throwing a circuit breaker, or other safe means, so no line power reaches it. The unit must provide light of normal brilliance for a full 3 hours, or it should be serviced or replaced. The recommendations are that these tests be done while the building is empty and that the building remain vacated for a further 24 hours afterwards. This is because after a “soak” test such as this it would take 24 hours for the batteris in the lights to fully recharge and should a fire or some such emergency take place in the mean time then there would not be enough power in the batteries to facilitate the full 3 hours

Who should complete the annual test and inspection?
In using a specialist company with competent fully trained staff to undertake your annual check you are insuring that your installation is up to date and continues to comply with current legislation.

Once we have completed the annual test and inspection we provide a full register of all emergency lights on site along with test results, a log book detailing tests completed to date and providing recording facilities and advice on monthly testing.

The log book should record the date of each inspections and test, date and details of any defects, action taken and detail any changes made to the installation.

As Emergency Lighting specialists, we have considerable expertise in the testing and inspection of these systems. From schools and colleges to commercial offices and retail premises, we provide organisations of all types with an ongoing programme of testing and certification, along with remedial works if required.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Connection of 3 Phase machinery

Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. It is a type of polyphase system and is the most common method used by grids worldwide to transfer power. It is also used to power large motors and other heavy loads. A three-phase system is generally more economical than others because it uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single-phase or two-phase systems at the same voltage. The three-phase system was introduced and patented by Nikola Tesla in the years from 1887 to 1888.

In a three-phase system, three circuit conductors carry three alternating currents (of the same frequency) which reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Taking one conductor as the reference, the other two currents are delayed in time by one-third and two-thirds of one cycle of the electric current. This delay between phases has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor.

Three-phase systems may have a neutral wire. A neutral wire allows the three-phase system to use a higher voltage while still supporting lower-voltage single-phase appliances. In high-voltage distribution situations, it is common not to have a neutral wire as the loads can simply be connected between phases (phase-phase connection).

Three-phase has properties that make it very desirable in electric power systems:

The phase currents tend to cancel out one another, summing to zero in the case of a linear balanced load. This makes it possible to eliminate or reduce the size of the neutral conductor; all the phase conductors carry the same current and so can be the same size, for a balanced load.

Power transfer into a linear balanced load is constant, which helps to reduce generator and motor vibrations.

Three-phase systems can produce a magnetic field that rotates in a specified direction, which simplifies the design of electric motors.

It is precisely for this reason that it is so often used in the Commercial and Industrial properties. Whether it’s your local garage, shop,factory or office block you will most often find a 3 phase 415 volt supply. Extra care must be taken when working with this system as an electric shock from 415 volts can quite often be fatal, where as 230/240 volts, without RCD protection, in the majority of cases will just give you a hard belt.

Three is the lowest phase order to exhibit all of these properties.

The three phases are typically indicated by colors which vary by country, but in the UK are as follows.

L1
L2
L3
Neutral
Earth / Ground
UK until April 2006
Red
Yellow
Blue
Black
Green/Yellow
UK since April 2006
Brown
Black
Grey
Blue
Green/Yellow

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Main and supplementary bonding/ earthing to gas and water supplies

See what our customers had to say about our work on Bonding here, and here.

Main Bonding (Earthing)
Main Bonding is the use of a separate thick (10mm) green and yellow copper cable, to connect the Water, Gas and Oil services to the Earth Terminal in or adjacent to your consumer unit. Connections are made on the metal pipes near the point at which they enter your home, i.e. The Main Bonding for the water is normally connected within 600mm of your Water Stop Tap.Main Bonding is there to protect you. A fault current (amps), but if is easy to understand in volts think of it in that way instead, will always try to find a path down to earth, literally to the ground. The current will always take the easiest path to ground; the idea of Main Bonding (and Supplementary Bonding) is to create an alternative path for the current to flow that is an easier path than along one of your heating pipes, along your arm, through your body, down your legs to the wet kitchen floor and to ground. By using a thick copper cable, you are creating a path that is more inviting to any fault currents and will divert any fault currents from your body or places where it should not go, as the current flows down to ground.

As long as the Water pipe, Gas pipe or Oil pipe, coming into your property are metallic, Main Bonding is compulsory in all circumstances even when the rest of the pipes in your house are plastic.

Supplementary Bonding
Supplementary Bonding is the use of a slighter thinner (4mm) green and yellow copper cable to connect together all metal pipes (and possible circuits) in a particular area. This area is typically the bathroom, or any other room containing a bath or shower. The  17th Edition Regulations is a little less demanding than the 16th Edition when it comes to Supplementary Bonding. There may be cases when no supplementary bonding is required in the bathroom, i.e. all the pipes are plastic. There could be other circumstances also when no supplementary bonding is required but since the regulations and calculations involved would be impossible to translate into layman’s terms, only an electrician could really come to that judgement.

Other areas where you may find or need Supplementary Bonding.
Area around Central Heating Boiler, Combi Boiler, and Immersion Heaters, where all the metallic pipes should be connected together with a green and yellow cable.

Kitchen. supplementary Bonding is installed in the kitchen, i.e. connecting kitchen sink with the hot and cold water pipes, a lot less frequently these days due to the relaxation in the 17th Edition with regards to Supplementary Bonding. That said, it’s better to be safer than sorry, so if your electrician does recommend that bonding be done in your kitchen (especially in commercial and industrial settings), don’t automatically be suspicious.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.