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COMMERCIAL SERVICES

Structured cabling

A structured cabling system is a complete system of cabling and associated hardware, which provides a comprehensive telecommunications infrastructure. This infrastructure serves a wide range of uses, such as to provide telephone service or transmit data through a computer network. It should not be device dependent.

We further define a structured cabling system in terms of ownership. The structured cabling system begins at the point where the service provider (SP) terminates. This point is the point of demarcation (demarc) or Network Interface Device (NID).For example, in a telephone system installation, the SP furnishes one or more service lines (per customer requirements). The SP connects the service lines at the point of demarcation.Every structured cabling system is unique. This is due to variations in:

  • The architectural structure of the building, which houses the cabling installation;
  • The cable and connection products;
  • The function of the cabling installation;
  • The types of equipment the cabling installation will support — present and future;
  • The configuration of an already installed system (upgrades and retrofits);
  • Customer requirements; and
  • Manufacturer warranties.The methods we use to complete and maintain cabling installations are relatively standard. The standardization of these installations is necessary because of the need to ensure acceptable system performance from increasingly complex arrangements.These help to ensure a proper cabling installation.The benefits of these standards include:
  1. Consistency of design and installation;
  2. Conformance to physical and transmission line requirements;
  3. A basis for examining a proposed system expansion and other changes; and
  4. Uniform documentation

For more details on home neworking systems ckick here.

Portable Appliance Testing

Portable Appliance Testing (commonly known as PAT or PAT Inspection or PAT Testing) is a process in the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia by which electrical appliances are routinely checked for safety. The correct term for the whole process is In-service Inspection & Testing of Electrical Equipment.

When people work with electrical appliances, health and safety regulations state that the appliance must be safe, to prevent harm to the workers. Many types of equipment require testing at regular intervals to ensure continual safety; the interval between tests depending on both the type of appliance and the environment it is used in.

Evidence of testing is clearly visible to workers in the form of ‘Passed’ , ‘Tested For Electrical Safety’ and ‘DO NOT USE after’ labels affixed to various parts of the electrical equipment they use.

Portable appliance testing and inspection however was conducted on a 3 month (high risk) and 6 month (low risk) cycle from the early 1960s onwards in government departments under the control of the Department of the Environment Property and Services Agency (circa 1970 to 2000) as the DOEPSA was known and prior to that as the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works (MoPBW) until about 1970.[citation needed]

Extensive record keeping was made into log-books and generally the equipment used was an insulation resistance tester, simple hand tools and visual inspection. This testing and inspection was done under a planned maintenance scheme and predated both the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Electricity at Work Act 1990 that are frequently quoted as the reason that PAT inspection is done.[citation needed]

In reality neither act nor their corresponding regulations detail PAT inspection as an obligation but rather state a requirement of maintenance of safety and evidence of routine maintenance of all hand-held, portable and plug-in equipment.

It seemed inevitable with the increasing amounts of such equipment in domestic, commercial and industrial environments that the system employed for all government departments would become more formalized and adopted as a method for assuring safety of appliances in the world beyond the civil service departments.[citation needed]

Testing equipment specifically designed for PAT inspections was developed as mobile versions of the equipment used by manufacturers for testing their equipment at the end of the manufacturing process to ensure compliance with the relevant or corresponding BS (British Standard Code of Practice) for that type of appliance.[citation needed]

One other check carried out on high risk equipment such as hand held electrical mains drills class I equipment when issued from a government department stores was the Earth Yeading Test. This test passed a current of 25 A down the earth conductor (the c.p.c. circuit protective conductor as it is currently named) to substantiate that the earth was a sound and valid connection for safe disconnection in the event of a fault occurring.

Regulations on who must have their equipment PAT tested
The Electricity at Work Regulations (1989) requires “All electrical systems shall be maintained so as to prevent, so far as is reasonably practicable, any danger”. This is interpreted as covering the fixed electrical installation as well as portable and transportable equipment connected to it. The Regulations also state “It is the duty of every employer and self employed person to comply with the provision of these Regulations.”

British law (the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 in particular) requires that all electrical systems (including electrical appliances) are maintained (so far as is reasonably practicable) to prevent danger. Guidance from the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET, published under the IEE brand) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) suggest initial intervals for combined inspection and testing that range from three months (for construction equipment) to one year for inspection and, in many cases, longer periods for testing (certain types of appliance in schools, hotels, offices and shops).

Electrical systems refer to the installation as well as all the appliances connected to it. A qualified electrician or someone that has PAT testing training must inspect the installation annually in any public building and/or a place that people work, private houses do not need this test. The maintenance of the appliances can largely be carried out in-house in many organisations. This can result in cost savings and more flexibility in when PAT testing is carried out.

The European Low Voltage Directive governs the manufacture or importation of electrical appliances. Compliance to this has to be declared and indicated by the display of the CE mark on the product. The responsibility for this lies with the manufacturer or the importer and is policed by the Trading Standards. However, it is important to have a maintenance regime for electrical appliances. The Electricity at Work Regulations (1989) requires that electrical appliances be maintained so that they remain safe during use. The implementation of this is up to employers. The HSE or the local authority is responsible for the policing of this.

Who can PAT test
If you are a competent person and have a basic knowledge of electricity then you can be perfectly capable of testing appliances for electrical safety. It is, however, recommended that an individual wanting to PAT Test attends a course related to the subject matter. There can be much confusion on what needs PAT Testing, what class an appliance is (and therefore which areas to test), and how often appliances legally need to be tested. Proof of a company’s competence in PAT Testing is usually found in the form of a course certificate or qualification. A formal examination process for the topic is operated in collaboration with EAL or City and Guilds (the awarding body) under the authority of the QCA (The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority) who validate and authorise the qualification.

In the UK, There is no requirement to have a formal qualification for persons carrying out PAT Testing. The Electricity at Work regulations of 1989 simply state that inspecting and testing must be carried out by a competent person, however does not mention a benchmark for competency. It has become accepted practice, however, for individuals operating as PAT Testers to hold a 2377-12 City and Guilds qualification.

User checks
Advising the user of potential danger signs can result in problems being picked up before they can result in any danger. For example, if the power cable is frayed or the plug is cracked, users need to be advised NOT TO USE the appliance and report the fault to a supervisor. This information can be put across, say by the use of a poster or in a memo. User checks are always carried out before operation, and the results are generally not recorded, unless a defect is identified.

Formal visual inspections
This is a process of simply inspecting the appliance, the cable and the plug for any obvious signs of damage. According to the HSE, this process can find more than 90% of faults.

Combined inspections and PAT testing
At periodic intervals, it is essential to test the portable appliances to measure that the degree of protection to ensure that it is adequate. At these intervals, a formal visual inspection is carried out and then followed by PAT testing. Note the inside of the plug MUST be checked unless it is moulded or there is an unbroken seal covering the screws (bad internal wiring or an unsuitable fuse would cause the item to be classed as dangerous).

The tests that an individual must carry out to declare an item electrically safe is dependant on the class of construction (shown below). Some of these tests are:

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Parking Access Control.

Sliding Gates
These gates slide accross the ground on little wheels to open, the good news is that they are very reliable with non of the moving parts having a lot of stress, the bad news is that you need a fair amount of space on the wall adjacent to the gate so that the gate can slide accross.
 

Swing Gates
 
More like your traditional gates these are he most popular that we install. Easily adaptable they really make that great addition to compliment your new drive and garden wall.
 

Road Blockers – Rising Kerbs or Rising Bollards
Rising Kerbs are these barriers that rise up from the road to restrict entry or exit, more commonly seen in cities centers or private roads rather then a domestic drive.

Rising Bollards offer traffic control that disappears flush with ground level. Aesthetically pleasing and impassable to traffic, Rising Bollards provide a neat solution to preventing the passage of vehicles without the requirement for gates and have a minimal impact on the environment.

Bollards can be used individually enabling use of a single parking space or up to four units can run from a single control unit.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Door Entry System

Access Control

We can advise, supply and fit a range of access systems that you may want to help secure your home.

Remote Control

 
The most popular access systems that we fit and supply, a remote control that you can give to all members of the family so that they can use as they wish. However, visitors will then have to phone ahead so that they can gain access etc.
 
 
Push Button Controller
These systems are simple waterproof push button system available for anyone to use as there is no security at all but in an area where it may be close to other traffic users it may be impractical for a proximity system.

Proximity Control
These systems are loops built into the tarmac that senses a vehicle approaching and then opens the gate automatically

Keypad Control
A code is entered into the keypad and the equipment opens. Safety and closing facilities can be by induction loop or photo-electric cell.

Intercom and Video System
By pressing a button on the unit, which is a buzzer to alert the main house, you as the home owner can then talk, or in the video version see, the person trying to gain entry and decide whether or not to let then in.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Security Lighting

See what our customers had to say about our work with security lighting here, and here.

Security lighting provides an excellent deterrent against intrusions and other criminal activity on your property or building by exposing the intruder and making him/her feel vulnerable to detection. Security lighting can also help detect intruders and even make you feel more secure in knowing that you have taken physical security measures to help protect against crime in and around your home/premises.We can supply and fit a number of Security lighting that come with a variety of contoling systems ranging from a totaly manual to easy to use fully automatic systems.

Manual Security Systems.
These are as simple as they come with a manual switch turning the lights on and off as required. We would normaly have two or three switches near the front door, for example, that would control;

  • A couple of lights just beside the front door to illuminate the area for guests or to see who is there before needing to open the door.
  • Lighting along the drive and near the gate.
  • Lighting around the house and gardens, when a noise would be heard, to illuminate a potential intruder.

Dusk-til-dawn with a PIR System.

Firstly PIR stands for Passive Infa Red and in laymans terms is a system that detectsmovement. This system is the first type of automation that security lighting uses so that the light will only switch on when someone is moving around the property. Sensetivity can also be adjusted on these lights so that the light doesn’t go off every time the cat walks across the grass.

With this is then a dusk-til-dawn sensor which then will only let the security light switch on when it gets dark. This stops you wasting electrcity with the light going off all through the day. Not only that, but these lights can also have a manual over ride just in case you wanted to blast the area with light should you want to confirm the pressence of an intruder or the kids want to play floodlit footbal.

Fully Automatic Sysytems
These control systems can be programmed to cover all of the above situationsas well as switching on and off periodicaly, for instance when you are on holiday or away on business, persuading the potential intruder that there is someone still at home or activity on the premisses. These can be programmed for just the two weeks when you go on the family holiday, or programmed to work all the time especially useful if you are away on business a lot or make a few last minute getaways. Remember yet again although the programmer would switch the garden lights or drive lights on and off at certain times the dusk-til-dawn controller would only let the light switch on when it is dark.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

CCTV

With the modern mini digital cameras that can be connected to the home PC coming in at less than £10 each CCTV or video suveilancing has quickly added a new level of security available to the average home owner. Tapping into your system, not only from your bedroom but even from your smart phone while your on holiday, you can monitor your home and the grounds from anywhere in the world and perfectly assess the response needed to protect your valuable posessions. You can see whether there is an intruder in your home or the family pet that has found a way out of its bed and gone on a wander through the house.

It can even be used to monitor the baby or young child in its bed, make sure the kids got home from school on time and if connected properly you could even answer the CCTV door entry system, convincing the visitor that your still home but not available. And finally at any given time, memory space available, record what you see for proof at a later date.

Wired or wireless Sysytems.
Generally, a wireless burglar alarm system consists of a control panel, siren and devices such as PIR sensors, window/door shock sensors, smoke alarms etc… Every wireless security component has a built in radio transmitter/receiver to enable it to communicate with the control panel unit.

As the components of this system communicate wirelessly, it is easily possible to move the components around the home without having to change any wiring. Its also very easy to add new devices such as additional PIR sensors and smoke detectors. There are however, limitations as to how many devices it can support.

Wireless burglar alarm technology is now widely considered to be just as reliable as that of wired technology, all due to recent developments. When wireless alarms were first introduced, there were some concerns that signal interference, for example, from wireless doorbells or baby monitors, might impact on the alarms effectiveness, but these issues have been eliminated by the leading manufacturers.

However there are a number of downsides to a wireless alarm system. Each device will run on batteries so these will need to be regularly checked and replaced. A more sophisticated alarm system can inform of a low battery device via its control panel display. Fortunately, most devices can run in “sleep” mode when not needed, thus conserving battery life. Be aware that poorly charged batteries may result in false alarms to be triggered.

Some materials in your property may impair (or even disable) a device’s ability to communicate with the control panel. Thick concrete walls and iron/steel work will not help the device communication. Also long distances could prove a problem.

Monitored versus unmonitored systems
Unmonitored systems usually consist of an on-site alarm and/or flashing lights that indicate the security system has been breached and relies on neighbours or passers by to call the police. This type of system depends on other people reporting the incident – the alarm may go unnoticed if your neighbours are not at home or no one notices the alarm. Your neighbours, or a passerby, may also choose not to get involved. An unmonitored system is not likely a viable option in a remote or rural area.

Monitored systems contact a monitoring system by telephone. The typical sequence of events is as follows:

The security system senses a breach in security.
The security system and waits for 30 – 45 seconds before going into alarm allowing the homeowner a change to deactivate the system to prevent false alarms.

If not deactivated, the security system goes into alarm and sends a message to the monitoring company via the telephone.

The monitoring company received the message, determines the nature of the alarm and verifies the alarm, generally by placing a phone call to the home. If they do not receive the proper password or do not receive an answer, they will call the police.

The police receive the monitoring company’s call and respond.

Monitoring service
Remember that no matter how advanced or extensive your system may be, it is only as good as the service that is monitoring your home. Virtually all companies offer 24-hour monitoring, but there are a few other aspects to consider:

Cellular or radio back-up – Your phone can be disabled as a result of inclement weather, accidents, equipment failures or burglars cutting your phone line. A back-up system provides constant monitoring of your system and can alert the security company when the standard phone system is disabled.

System testing – Some companies will test your system on a regular basis to verify that the system is working and that the phone line is operable.

Maintenance – Your system should be tested and cleaned regularly to ensure optimal performance. Once a year is recommended.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Fault Finding and Repairs

See what our customers had to say about our work with finding faults in electrical circuits on these pages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8.
Electrical Faults Are a Safety Hazard
Electrical faults are a health and safety hazard and could be putting your life in danger. Whether in the home or work environment, electrical faults put people at risk of electrocution and electrical fire. AA electricians are highly skilled in the practice of electrical fault finding and will locate your fault quickly and with minimal disruption to your routine.Problems must be solved by replacing only defective equipment or components in the least amount of time. One of the most important factors in doing this, is the approach used. An expert troubleshooter uses a system or approach that allows them to logically and systematically analyze a circuit and determine exactly what is wrong.
Fault Location Strategy and Diagnosis
Firstly we design and implement a fault location strategy, and then we explain the fault diagnosis and circuit system fault to you in full detail. If you have an open circuit, short circuit or electronic system fault we will apply an efficient diagnosis and effective solution to the problem.
At AA Electrical Services we utilise the following fault finding strategy:
PREPERATION AND OBSERVATION
Analyse the symptoms of the electrical fault(s).DEFINE THE PROBLEM
Determine the type of electrical fault: open circuit, short circuit, insulation breakdown.DETERMINE THE PROBABLE CAUSE AND SOLUTION
Design the most effective and efficient strategy to solve the problem.

BRIEFING
Explain to the customer in English, and not gobbledy gook, exactly what needs fixing and the budget required.

REPAIR AND TEST (then follow up)
Carry out the work with minimal disruption to the customer’s environment.

Fault Finding Expertise
Don’t put your family or your staff at risk by ignoring electrical faults. Call AA Electrical Services today and take action towards securing the safety of your home or work environment. All AA electricians are fully qualified in fault finding and fully insured in implementing suitable repair work.

Lamp replacement – internal and external

Design and replacement/repair of switchgear, contactors and resistors

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Tripping RCDs,circuit breakers, fuseboard replacement

Fuses
Rewirable fuses have a piece of special wire running between two screws designed specifically to melt and break When a fault or overload current flows through the circuit. The melted fuse breaks the circuit, disconnecting the faulty circuit and keeping you safe.MCB’s – Mini Circuit Breakers

These are automatic protection devices in a household consumer unit that switch off a circuit if they detect a fault. They are similar in size to fuses, but give more precise protection. When they ‘trip’ you can simply reset the switch, but make sure you correct the fault first.

An MCB is a form of fuse (protective device) which overcomes the traditional problem associated with fuses in so much as when one blows it does not need to be replaced as a fuse does. MCB’s operate when they sense an overload, or over current, and become an automatic switch, turning off, or tripping, the MCB when it detects such an overload.

RCD – Residual Current Devices
See what our customers had to say about our work with RCD’s here.

A residual current device (RCD) is an electrical safety device that turns off the electricity supply automatically if there is a fault in either your wiring or something you plug in and use. RCD’s are far more sensitive than normal fuses and circuit-breakers and so provide you with much needed extra protection against an electric shock.

Having an RCD can save your life. An RCD constantly monitors the electric current flowing around your system. If it detects electricity flowing down an unintended path, such as into a person who has touched something live, it will switch the circuit off very quickly as they usually operate within 25-30 milliseconds, thereby significantly reducing the risk of death or serious injury. Circuit breakers and wire fuses can take significantly longer to turn off the power, as they are primarily designed to protect the wiring, and this can prove fatal if a person was getting an electric shock. If your home has one or more RCD’s, then you must test them regularly.

Testing the button every three months is important. The device should switch off the electricity to a number of circuits; you should then switch it back on to restore the electricity. Do not hold the test button for a long period if the RCD does not trip. If it doesn’t switch off the electricity when you press the button, contact a registered electrician. To test, just follow the instruction label, which you should find near to the RCD. It should read as follows:

“This installation, or part of it, is protected by a device which automatically switches off the supply if an earth fault develops. Test every three months by pressing the button marked ‘T’ or ‘Test’.” More on RCD’s

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Electrical periodic tests

See what our customers had to say about our Periodic Inspection Reports here, here, here, and here.

What is a periodic inspection?
An inspection and series of tests to make sure your electrical installation will continue to conform to the national safety standard. A periodic inspection will

  • Reveal if any of your electrical circuits or equipment are overloaded.
  • Find any potential electric shock risks or fire hazards.
  • Identify any defective electrical work.
  • Highlight any lack of earthing or bonding.
Tests are also carried out on wiring and fixed electrical equipment to check that it is safe. A schedule of circuits will also be provided, which is invaluable for a property.

 
Why is a periodic inspection needed?
Electrics deteriorate with use and age – and electricity can be deadly. So it’s vital that people aren’t put at risk.

How often is a periodic inspection required?

Your electrics should be tested every:

  • 10 years for a home.
  • 5 years for a business.
  • 3 years for caravans.
  • 1 year for swimming pools.

 
Other instances when a periodic inspection should be carried out are

  • When a property is being prepared to be let.
  • Before selling a property or when buying a previously occupied property.

 

Who should do it and what happens?
A suitably qualified electrician, who will check the electrics against the national safety standard, should carry out all periodic inspections. The inspection should meet BS 7671 – Requirements for Electrical Installations (IEE Wiring Regulations). That’s the technical name for the 850 regulations that are checked in this test.

The inspection takes into account all the relevant circumstances and includes the following

  • The adequacy of earthing and bonding.
  • The suitability of the switch and control gear. For example an old fusebox with a wooden back, cast-iron switches, or a mixture of both will need replacing.
  • The serviceability of switches, sockets and light fittings. All of these may need replacing: older round-pin sockets, round light switches, cables with fabric coating hanging from ceiling roses to light fittings, black switches and sockets mounted in skirting boards.
  • The type of wiring system and its condition. For example cables coated in black rubber were phased out in the 1960s, likewise cables coated in lead or fabric are even older and may well need replacing (modern cables use safer pvc insulation).
  • That residual current devices are used for sockets that may be used with outdoor electrical equipment.
  • The presence of adequate identification and notices.
  • The extent of any wear and tear, damage or other deterioration.
  • The changes in use of the premises which have led to, or may lead to, problematic wiring.
The electrician will provide a Periodic Inspection Report (PIR) as part of the periodic inspection.

We employ reliable professionals who are trained to deal with all aspects of electrical faults. AA Electrical Services is a reputable installation, repair and maintenance service company covering the South East area. Our team of electricians provides you with maintenance of your electrical installation and appliances as well as a fast and reliable breakdown service. Recognising current British standards, our electrical engineers are NICEIC registered, Part P accredited and qualified to 17th edition standard, as certified by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). This enables us to offer the highest levels of professional service to you.

Visual inspections to ascertain risks

See what our customers had to say about our Visual Inspections here.As you will have read on the Periodic Inspection page the periodic is a very involved inpection and test that really looks and tests every nook and cranny of your electrical system. But what if you just want an electrician to give the place a “once over” after a tenant has moved out for instance, or if you want to know if your home is compliant with modern regulations. We will look over your home or property and give you an honest appraisal.

Have you always had a niggling feeling about the electrics that was done as part of a kitchen refurbishment some years ago, was the DIY extension that your ex-husband did in the garage really as safe as he said, these are the kinds of reasons we get called in to put your mind at rest but without the expense of a periodic inspection.